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The Unified Earth Government, or UEG, is the central civilian government that administers Earth and her colonies. It houses the Colonial Administration Authority and the United Nations Space Command.
The UEG is a representative democracy/Constitutional democracy type of government. It was founded by the United Nations during the time Humanity began colonizing other worlds. As of January 2553, President Ruth Charet took office as Head of State. She promises freedom and to bring Humanity into the reconstruction phase. The UEG capital is Earth. The UEG uses the United Nations Credit monetary unit to organize its economical stability by selling or buying military equipment, supplies and costs for shipping, etc. It is a universal currency distributed throughout the UEG. The official language for the UEG is English, though there are other languages commonly used throughout the colonies.
The UEG territory is divided into two main sections: the Inner colonies and the Outer colonies. The Inner colonies stretch in a 10.5 light year radius of Earth. Anything beyond that is the Outer colonies. There are few exceptions to this rule, specifically for economic and political reasons. After the war, a lot of the Outer colonies refused to rejoin the UEG, some even chose to unite with the URF.
Colonial Administration Authority
—Main Page: Colonial Administration Authority
The Colonial Administration Authority, abbreviated CAA, was an organization under the ultimate control of the Unified Earth Government. The CAA acted as a secondary governing body that helped the UEG govern the various colony worlds of humanity. In addition, the CAA kept extensive files on every colony, world, and city under its care. The document containing these files was referred to as the CAA Factbook. This information proved very useful to ONI and UNSC during the Human-Covenant War.
Over the course of the Human-Covenant war, the UNSC had largely taken over many of the responsibilities of other branches of the government. The CAA was described as "a little more resistant to the idea than the UEG and has subsequently been stripped of most of its power." It is therefore likely that the organization no longer exists in any functional capacity by 2552, though the Factbook was still being updated as late as 2550.
United Nations Space Command
—Main Page: United Nations Space Command
The United Nations Space Command serves as the UEG's primary defense branch. The UNSC is intended to protect the colonist and any colony world in UEG control. They commonly combat enemies such as the Insurrections, the New Colonial Alliance, and the Covenant.
During the Human-Covenant War, the UNSC took control of most of the UEG's branches, including the Colonial Administration Authority. Not only is the UNSC the main military branch, it also is the UEG's exploratory and scientific arm.
The UNSC also houses departments such as the UNSC High Command, the Office of Naval Intelligence, and UNSC Defense Force.
Department of Commercial Shipping
The Department of Commercial Shipping is an organization which regulates interstellar commerce and shipping between colony worlds. DCS employees often complain about the UNSC restricting their access to certain colonies or certain spaces. Of course, the UNSC only do this because the areas are not safe. Orbital stations linking to space elevators are usually the pit stops where the DCS collects and gives supplies.